Polymer Testing

Volume 82, February 2020, 106309

Self-heating 3D printed continuous carbon fiber/epoxy mesh and its application in wind turbine deicing

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymertesting.2019.106309Get rights and content


A novel self-heating 3D printed CCF/EP mesh for deicing was proposed and investigated.

The high conductivity and resistance stability of the CCF/EP mesh was confirmed.

The deicing mechanism of the CCF/EP mesh was explained by the electrical self-heating performance.

The CCF/EP mesh reinforcement decreased the deicing time by 85%.

The CCF/EP mesh reinforcement exhibited a protective effect on the GFRTPC laminate.


A novel self-heating 3D printed continuous carbon fiber (CCF)/epoxy (EP) mesh for deicing was proposed. Because of electron migrating conduction and hopping conduction, the conductivity of CCF reached 131.3 S cm−1 at 25 °C and increased by 1.1%–148.4 S cm−1 at 200 °C, exhibiting a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) effect. Because of the electron conduction of CCF and uneven thermal expansion of the fiber/matrix components, the CCF/EP mesh had NTC and positive temperature coefficient (PTC) effects. After specific hot-cold cycles, the resistance stability of the printed mesh was confirmed. Compared to unprotected glass fiber-reinforced composite laminate, the CCF/EP mesh reinforcement decreased the deicing time by 85% and had a protective effect on the residual flexural strength and modulus, fiber-resin bonding, and internal voids. Excellent conductivity, resistance stability, and electric self-heating performance indicate that 3D printed CCF/EP mesh is a promising candidate for use in deicing.


3D printing
Continuous carbon fiber
Thermosetting epoxy resin
Wind turbine

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